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Xenon ist ein chemisches Element mit dem Elementsymbol Xe und der Ordnungszahl Im Periodensystem steht es in der 8. Hauptgruppe, bzw. der IUPAC-Gruppe und zählt daher zu den Edelgasen. Wie die anderen Edelgase ist es ein farbloses, äußerst. Xenon (Audio-Datei / Hörbeispiel Anhören) ist ein chemisches Element mit dem Elementsymbol Xe und der Ordnungszahl Im Periodensystem steht es in. Xenonlicht bezeichnet bei Kraftfahrzeugen den Einsatz einer Xenon-​Gasentladungslampe im Abblendlicht beziehungsweise Fernlicht. Xenonscheinwerfer. Xenon (von altgriechisch ξένος xénos „fremd“) ist ein chemisches Element im Periodensystem der Elemente mit dem Symbol Xe und der Ordnungszahl Das Edelgas Xenon wird als Füllgas in Lampen verwendet. Warum und ob das Gas gesundheitlich gefährlich ist erklären wir im click-licht Glossar.

Xenon

Das Edelgas Xenon wird als Füllgas in Lampen verwendet. Warum und ob das Gas gesundheitlich gefährlich ist erklären wir im click-licht Glossar. Xenon, Fluorine, and ridium: XeF†IrFs-, XeF+Ir2F11 –, Xe2F3*lrFsT, XeFs†lr2F11 T Xenon, Fluorine, and Osmium: XeF†OsFs-, Xe2Fs +OsFs-, XeF2. Xenon (von altgriechisch ξένος xénos „fremd“) ist ein chemisches Element im Periodensystem der Elemente mit dem Symbol Xe und der Ordnungszahl

Xenon Video

Xenon - Guardame un secreto [Videoclip Oficial] Die 8K reingebaut angeschalten für ein paar Sekunden ein sattes blau wurden dann aber gleich heller, Jetzt nach ungefähr 20 Brennstunden hab ich ein helles leicht Xenon Licht, die Ausleuchtung ist Verpassen Sie keine aktuellen Rabatte und Aktionen aus unserem Onlineshop. DE nicht. Was man see more daran erkennt, dass Halogenlampen grundsätzlich here den normalen Hausmüll entsorgt werden können. Er untersuchte die Wirkung verschiedener Gase und Gasmischungen auf Taucher und vermutete read article den Ergebnissen, dass Xenon auch bei Normaldruck eine narkotische Wirkung haben müsse. Häufig gesucht.

For instance, xenon dissolved in water, xenon dissolved in hydrophobic solvent, and xenon associated with certain proteins can be distinguished by NMR.

Hyperpolarized xenon can be used by surface chemists. Normally, it is difficult to characterize surfaces with NMR because signals from a surface are overwhelmed by signals from the atomic nuclei in the bulk of the sample, which are much more numerous than surface nuclei.

However, nuclear spins on solid surfaces can be selectively polarized by transferring spin polarization to them from hyperpolarized xenon gas.

This makes the surface signals strong enough to measure and distinguish from bulk signals. In nuclear energy studies, xenon is used in bubble chambers , [] probes, and in other areas where a high molecular weight and inert chemistry is desirable.

A by-product of nuclear weapon testing is the release of radioactive xenon and xenon These isotopes are monitored to ensure compliance with nuclear test ban treaties , [] and to confirm nuclear tests by states such as North Korea.

Liquid xenon is used in calorimeters [] to measure gamma rays , and as a detector of hypothetical weakly interacting massive particles , or WIMPs.

When a WIMP collides with a xenon nucleus, theory predicts it will impart enough energy to cause ionization and scintillation.

Liquid xenon is useful for these experiments because its density makes dark matter interaction more likely and it permits a quiet detector through self-shielding.

Xenon is the preferred propellant for ion propulsion of spacecraft because it has low ionization potential per atomic weight and can be stored as a liquid at near room temperature under high pressure , yet easily evaporated to feed the engine.

Xenon is inert, environmentally friendly, and less corrosive to an ion engine than other fuels such as mercury or caesium. Xenon was first used for satellite ion engines during the s.

Chemically, the perxenate compounds are used as oxidizing agents in analytical chemistry. Xenon difluoride is used as an etchant for silicon , particularly in the production of microelectromechanical systems MEMS.

Applied at pressures from 0. Because they are strongly oxidative , many oxygen— xenon compounds are toxic; they are also explosive highly exothermic , breaking down to elemental xenon and diatomic oxygen O 2 with much stronger chemical bonds than the xenon compounds.

Xenon gas can be safely kept in normal sealed glass or metal containers at standard temperature and pressure.

However, it readily dissolves in most plastics and rubber, and will gradually escape from a container sealed with such materials.

Hence, xenon vibrates more slowly in the vocal cords when exhaled and produces lowered voice tones, an effect opposite to the high-toned voice produced in helium.

Like helium, xenon does not satisfy the body's need for oxygen, and it is both a simple asphyxiant and an anesthetic more powerful than nitrous oxide; consequently, and because xenon is expensive, many universities have prohibited the voice stunt as a general chemistry demonstration.

The gas sulfur hexafluoride is similar to xenon in molecular weight versus , less expensive, and though an asphyxiant, not toxic or anesthetic; it is often substituted in these demonstrations.

Breathing mixes gases of different densities very effectively and rapidly so that heavier gases are purged along with the oxygen, and do not accumulate at the bottom of the lungs.

Xenon is rarely used in large enough quantities for this to be a concern, though the potential for danger exists any time a tank or container of xenon is kept in an unventilated space.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the chemical element. For other uses, see Xenon disambiguation.

Chemical element with atomic number A xenon-filled discharge tube glowing light blue. Xenon flash animated version. Main article: Isotopes of xenon.

See also: Category:Xenon compounds. Chemistry portal. Oxford English Dictionary. Clarendon Press. Retrieved Pure and Applied Chemistry.

Gas Encyclopedia. Air Liquide. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. Physical Review C. Bibcode : PhRvC..

Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia 6th ed. Columbia University Press. Thermophysical properties of neon, argon, krypton, and xenon. Bibcode : wdch Volume Oxford University Press.

Sound Person's Guide to Video. Focal Press. British Medical Bulletin. Soviet Journal of Quantum Electronics.

Bibcode : QuEle Laser Cladding. CRC Press. August 31, Nuclear Reactor Physics. Nobel Media AB. Retrieved 15 November Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility.

Dodd, Mead and Company. Merriam-Webster, Inc. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Bibcode : RSPS Millisecond Cinematography.

Archived from the original on Encyclopedia of Laser Physics and Technology. RP Photonics. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine.

Proceedings of the Chemical Society. London: Chemical Society 3 : London: Chemical Society 6 : Coordination Chemistry Reviews.

Bernhard J. Aylett ed. Inorganic Chemistry. San Diego: Academic Press. College of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley. Archived from the original on September 23, American Chemical Society.

Bibcode : Natur. Bibcode : Sci Zirin Journal of the American Chemical Society. Periodic Table Online. Archived from the original on April 10, Journal of Chemical Education.

Bibcode : JChEd.. April 5, "2 Researchers Spell 'I. April 19, Noble Gas Detectors. Cornell University. Physical Review Letters.

Bibcode : PhRvL.. Physical Review B. Bibcode : PhRvB.. McMaster University. Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule Aachen.

Archived from the original on July 18, An Introduction to the Study of Spectrum Analysis. London: Longmans, Green, and Co.

Lein; Daniel A. Morgan Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology 5th ed. August 10, Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 6th ed.

Supernovae and Nucleosynthesis. Journal of Geophysical Research. Bibcode : JGR Principles of Stellar Evolution and Nucleosynthesis.

University of Chicago Press. March 19—23, Xenon from intermediate zones of supernovae. Proceedings 10th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference.

Houston, Texas: Pergamon Press, Inc. Bibcode : LPSC Memorie della Societa Astronomica Italiana. Bibcode : MmSAI..

November Astrophysics and Space Science. Resources on Isotopes. Czechoslovak Journal of Physics.

Bibcode : CzJPh.. Bibcode : PhRvL. Europhysics News. Bibcode : ENews.. NMR in Biomedicine. The Encyclopaedia of Medical Imaging.

Physical Review. Bibcode : PhRv.. Department of Energy. Modern Physics: An Introductory Text. Imperial College Press. Aquatic Pollution: An Introductory Text.

John Wiley and Sons. Principles of Stellar Evolution and Nucleosynthesis 2nd ed. Reynolds, Physics: Berkeley". The University of California, Berkeley.

September 1, Mars Global Circulation Model Group. Elements of the p block. Great Britain: Royal Society of Chemistry.

J Am Chem Soc. Acta Chimica Slovenica. Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data. Concise encyclopedia chemistry. Walter de Gruyter.

The Journal of Physical Chemistry. Syntheses and Physical Studies of Inorganic Compounds. Elsevier Science. Sykes ed. Advances in Inorganic Chemistry Press.

Main group chemistry. Introduction to modern inorganic chemistry 6th ed. Complex formation with Lewis acids and bases". Advances in Inorganic Chemistry.

Contributor A. Academic Press. Journal of Fluorine Chemistry. Preparation of FXe-BF 2 ". Gong-Du Zhou; Thomas C. Mak eds. Advanced Structural Inorganic Chemistry.

Annual Review of Physical Chemistry. Bibcode : ARPC Benny Reprinted as Pauling, Linus; Kamb, Barclay, eds. Linus Pauling: Selected Scientific Papers.

November 23, Journal of Physical Chemistry A. Bibcode : JPCA.. Scientific Reports. Bibcode : NatSR Geophysical Research Letters.

Bibcode : GeoRL.. James; Saunders, Martin Laser Fundamentals. Cambridge University Press. The Measurement, Instrumentation, and Sensors Handbook.

Excimer Lasers in Ophthalmology. Informa Health Care. Praxair Technology. Technical Physics Letters. Bibcode : TePhL..

LLE Review. Archived from the original PDF on October 16, Plasma TV Science. Archived from the original on October 15, The New York Times.

Electric Discharge Lamps. August 1, Bibcode : PhRvL December 1, Applied Physics Letters. Bibcode : ApPhL Applied Optics.

Bibcode : ApOpt Xenon can also form endohedral fullerene compounds, where a xenon atom is trapped inside a fullerene molecule.

The xenon atom trapped in the fullerene can be observed by Xe nuclear magnetic resonance NMR spectroscopy. Through the sensitive chemical shift of the xenon atom to its environment, chemical reactions on the fullerene molecule can be analyzed.

These observations are not without caveat, however, because the xenon atom has an electronic influence on the reactivity of the fullerene.

When xenon atoms are in the ground energy state , they repel each other and will not form a bond. When xenon atoms becomes energized, however, they can form an excimer excited dimer until the electrons return to the ground state.

This entity is formed because the xenon atom tends to complete the outermost electronic shell by adding an electron from a neighboring xenon atom.

Although xenon is rare and relatively expensive to extract from the Earth's atmosphere , it has a number of applications. Xenon is used in light-emitting devices called xenon flash lamps, used in photographic flashes and stroboscopic lamps; [15] to excite the active medium in lasers which then generate coherent light ; [] and, occasionally, in bactericidal lamps.

Continuous, short-arc, high pressure xenon arc lamps have a color temperature closely approximating noon sunlight and are used in solar simulators.

That is, the chromaticity of these lamps closely approximates a heated black body radiator at the temperature of the Sun. First introduced in the s, these lamps replaced the shorter-lived carbon arc lamps in movie projectors.

They are an excellent source of short wavelength ultraviolet radiation and have intense emissions in the near infrared used in some night vision systems.

Xenon is used as a starter gas in HID automotive headlights, and high-end "tactical" flashlights. The individual cells in a plasma display contain a mixture of xenon and neon ionized with electrodes.

The interaction of this plasma with the electrodes generates ultraviolet photons , which then excite the phosphor coating on the front of the display.

Xenon is used as a "starter gas" in high pressure sodium lamps. It has the lowest thermal conductivity and lowest ionization potential of all the non-radioactive noble gases.

As a noble gas, it does not interfere with the chemical reactions occurring in the operating lamp. The low thermal conductivity minimizes thermal losses in the lamp while in the operating state, and the low ionization potential causes the breakdown voltage of the gas to be relatively low in the cold state, which allows the lamp to be more easily started.

In , a group of researchers at Bell Laboratories discovered laser action in xenon, [] and later found that the laser gain was improved by adding helium to the lasing medium.

Xenon has been used as a general anesthetic , but it is more expensive than conventional anesthetics. Xenon interacts with many different receptors and ion channels, and like many theoretically multi-modal inhalation anesthetics, these interactions are likely complementary.

Xenon is a high-affinity glycine-site NMDA receptor antagonist. Like nitrous oxide and cyclopropane , xenon activates the two-pore domain potassium channel TREK A related channel TASK-3 also implicated in the actions of inhalation anesthetics is insensitive to xenon.

Xenon is a competitive inhibitor of the serotonin 5-HT 3 receptor. While neither anesthetic nor antinociceptive, this reduces anesthesia-emergent nausea and vomiting.

Unlike nitrous oxide N 2 O , xenon is not a greenhouse gas and is viewed as environmentally friendly. Xenon induces robust cardioprotection and neuroprotection through a variety of mechanisms.

The latter hormone is known to increase red blood cell production and athletic performance. Reportedly, doping with xenon inhalation has been used in Russia since and perhaps earlier.

Gamma emission from the radioisotope Xe of xenon can be used to image the heart, lungs, and brain, for example, by means of single photon emission computed tomography.

Xenon, particularly hyperpolarized Xe, is a useful contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging MRI. In the gas phase, it can image cavities in a porous sample, alveoli in lungs, or the flow of gases within the lungs.

The xenon chloride excimer laser has certain dermatological uses. Because of the xenon atom's large, flexible outer electron shell, the NMR spectrum changes in response to surrounding conditions and can be used to monitor the surrounding chemical circumstances.

For instance, xenon dissolved in water, xenon dissolved in hydrophobic solvent, and xenon associated with certain proteins can be distinguished by NMR.

Hyperpolarized xenon can be used by surface chemists. Normally, it is difficult to characterize surfaces with NMR because signals from a surface are overwhelmed by signals from the atomic nuclei in the bulk of the sample, which are much more numerous than surface nuclei.

However, nuclear spins on solid surfaces can be selectively polarized by transferring spin polarization to them from hyperpolarized xenon gas.

This makes the surface signals strong enough to measure and distinguish from bulk signals. In nuclear energy studies, xenon is used in bubble chambers , [] probes, and in other areas where a high molecular weight and inert chemistry is desirable.

A by-product of nuclear weapon testing is the release of radioactive xenon and xenon These isotopes are monitored to ensure compliance with nuclear test ban treaties , [] and to confirm nuclear tests by states such as North Korea.

Liquid xenon is used in calorimeters [] to measure gamma rays , and as a detector of hypothetical weakly interacting massive particles , or WIMPs.

When a WIMP collides with a xenon nucleus, theory predicts it will impart enough energy to cause ionization and scintillation.

Liquid xenon is useful for these experiments because its density makes dark matter interaction more likely and it permits a quiet detector through self-shielding.

Xenon is the preferred propellant for ion propulsion of spacecraft because it has low ionization potential per atomic weight and can be stored as a liquid at near room temperature under high pressure , yet easily evaporated to feed the engine.

Xenon is inert, environmentally friendly, and less corrosive to an ion engine than other fuels such as mercury or caesium.

Xenon was first used for satellite ion engines during the s. Chemically, the perxenate compounds are used as oxidizing agents in analytical chemistry.

Xenon difluoride is used as an etchant for silicon , particularly in the production of microelectromechanical systems MEMS. Applied at pressures from 0.

Because they are strongly oxidative , many oxygen— xenon compounds are toxic; they are also explosive highly exothermic , breaking down to elemental xenon and diatomic oxygen O 2 with much stronger chemical bonds than the xenon compounds.

Xenon gas can be safely kept in normal sealed glass or metal containers at standard temperature and pressure. However, it readily dissolves in most plastics and rubber, and will gradually escape from a container sealed with such materials.

Hence, xenon vibrates more slowly in the vocal cords when exhaled and produces lowered voice tones, an effect opposite to the high-toned voice produced in helium.

Like helium, xenon does not satisfy the body's need for oxygen, and it is both a simple asphyxiant and an anesthetic more powerful than nitrous oxide; consequently, and because xenon is expensive, many universities have prohibited the voice stunt as a general chemistry demonstration.

The gas sulfur hexafluoride is similar to xenon in molecular weight versus , less expensive, and though an asphyxiant, not toxic or anesthetic; it is often substituted in these demonstrations.

Breathing mixes gases of different densities very effectively and rapidly so that heavier gases are purged along with the oxygen, and do not accumulate at the bottom of the lungs.

Xenon is rarely used in large enough quantities for this to be a concern, though the potential for danger exists any time a tank or container of xenon is kept in an unventilated space.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the chemical element. For other uses, see Xenon disambiguation.

Chemical element with atomic number A xenon-filled discharge tube glowing light blue. Xenon flash animated version.

Main article: Isotopes of xenon. See also: Category:Xenon compounds. Chemistry portal. Oxford English Dictionary.

Clarendon Press. Retrieved Pure and Applied Chemistry. Gas Encyclopedia. Air Liquide. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. Physical Review C.

Bibcode : PhRvC.. Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia 6th ed. Columbia University Press. Thermophysical properties of neon, argon, krypton, and xenon.

Bibcode : wdch Volume Oxford University Press. Sound Person's Guide to Video. Focal Press. British Medical Bulletin. Soviet Journal of Quantum Electronics.

Bibcode : QuEle Laser Cladding. CRC Press. August 31, Nuclear Reactor Physics. Nobel Media AB. Retrieved 15 November Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility.

Dodd, Mead and Company. Merriam-Webster, Inc. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Bibcode : RSPS Millisecond Cinematography.

Archived from the original on Encyclopedia of Laser Physics and Technology. RP Photonics. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine.

Proceedings of the Chemical Society. London: Chemical Society 3 : London: Chemical Society 6 : Coordination Chemistry Reviews. Bernhard J.

Aylett ed. Inorganic Chemistry. San Diego: Academic Press. College of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley. Archived from the original on September 23, American Chemical Society.

Bibcode : Natur. Bibcode : Sci Zirin Journal of the American Chemical Society. Periodic Table Online. Archived from the original on April 10, Journal of Chemical Education.

Bibcode : JChEd.. April 5, "2 Researchers Spell 'I. April 19, Noble Gas Detectors. Cornell University.

Physical Review Letters. Bibcode : PhRvL.. Physical Review B. Bibcode : PhRvB.. McMaster University. Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule Aachen.

Archived from the original on July 18, An Introduction to the Study of Spectrum Analysis. London: Longmans, Green, and Co.

Lein; Daniel A. Morgan Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology 5th ed. August 10, Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 6th ed.

Supernovae and Nucleosynthesis. Journal of Geophysical Research. Bibcode : JGR Principles of Stellar Evolution and Nucleosynthesis.

University of Chicago Press. March 19—23, Xenon from intermediate zones of supernovae. Proceedings 10th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference.

Houston, Texas: Pergamon Press, Inc. Bibcode : LPSC Memorie della Societa Astronomica Italiana. Bibcode : MmSAI.. November Astrophysics and Space Science.

Resources on Isotopes. Czechoslovak Journal of Physics. Bibcode : CzJPh.. Bibcode : PhRvL. Europhysics News. Bibcode : ENews..

NMR in Biomedicine. The Encyclopaedia of Medical Imaging. Physical Review. Bibcode : PhRv.. Department of Energy.

Modern Physics: An Introductory Text. Imperial College Press. Aquatic Pollution: An Introductory Text.

John Wiley and Sons. Principles of Stellar Evolution and Nucleosynthesis 2nd ed. Reynolds, Physics: Berkeley". The University of California, Berkeley.

September 1, Mars Global Circulation Model Group. Elements of the p block. Great Britain: Royal Society of Chemistry.

J Am Chem Soc. Acta Chimica Slovenica. Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data. Concise encyclopedia chemistry. Walter de Gruyter.

The Journal of Physical Chemistry. Syntheses and Physical Studies of Inorganic Compounds. Elsevier Science.

Sykes ed. Advances in Inorganic Chemistry Press. Main group chemistry. Introduction to modern inorganic chemistry 6th ed.

Complex formation with Lewis acids and bases". Advances in Inorganic Chemistry. Contributor A. Academic Press. Journal of Fluorine Chemistry.

Preparation of FXe-BF 2 ".

Zur Reduzierung der Zündspannung zum Beispiel in Plasma Display Panels wird eine Penningmischung aus wenigen Prozent Xenon in Neon verwendet. Gebräuchlichste Lichtquellen der Reproduktionstechnik sind gegenwärtig Xenon​-Impuls-, Jodquarz- und Metallhalogenid- lampen. Kohlebogenlampen. Xe, *** Xe, *** Xe, physical properties ***Xenon, Funktionsdiagnostik, Niere, *** Xenon, functional diagnosis ***Xenon, Neutronenaktivierung, ***Xenon. Xenon, Fluorine, and ridium: XeF†IrFs-, XeF+Ir2F11 –, Xe2F3*lrFsT, XeFs†lr2F11 T Xenon, Fluorine, and Osmium: XeF†OsFs-, Xe2Fs +OsFs-, XeF2. Die Xenon-Reihe von NARVA erzeugt ein brillantes weißes Licht und ermöglicht mit einem präzisen Lichtbündel eine bessere Sichtbarkeit und damit mehr. Xenon

These two events supernova and solidification of gas cloud were inferred to have happened during the early history of the Solar System , because the I isotope was likely generated shortly before the Solar System was formed, seeding the solar gas cloud with isotopes from a second source.

This supernova source may also have caused collapse of the solar gas cloud. Since this isotope is generated by radioactive decay, the result may indicate that Mars lost most of its primordial atmosphere, possibly within the first million years after the planet was formed.

After Neil Bartlett's discovery in that xenon can form chemical compounds, a large number of xenon compounds have been discovered and described.

Almost all known xenon compounds contain the electronegative atoms fluorine or oxygen. The chemistry of xenon in each oxidation state is analogous to that of the neighboring element iodine in the immediately lower oxidation state.

XeF is theorized to be unstable. The solid, crystalline difluoride XeF 2 is formed when a mixture of fluorine and xenon gases is exposed to ultraviolet light.

XeF 2 also forms coordination complexes with transition metal ions. More than 30 such complexes have been synthesized and characterized.

Whereas the xenon fluorides are well characterized, with the exception of dichloride XeCl 2 and XeCl 4 , the other halides are not known.

However, XeCl 2 may be merely a van der Waals molecule of weakly bound Xe atoms and Cl 2 molecules and not a real compound.

Three oxides of xenon are known: xenon trioxide XeO 3 and xenon tetroxide XeO 4 , both of which are dangerously explosive and powerful oxidizing agents, and xenon dioxide XeO 2 , which was reported in with a coordination number of four.

Its crystal structure may allow it to replace silicon in silicate minerals. Xenon does not react with oxygen directly; the trioxide is formed by the hydrolysis of XeF 6 : [].

Barium perxenate, when treated with concentrated sulfuric acid , yields gaseous xenon tetroxide: [94].

To prevent decomposition, the xenon tetroxide thus formed is quickly cooled into a pale-yellow solid. XeOF 2 is formed by reacting OF 2 with xenon gas at low temperatures.

It may also be obtained by partial hydrolysis of XeF 4. The latter reaction also produces a small amount of XeO 3 F 2. Xenon can be directly bonded to a less electronegative element than fluorine or oxygen, particularly carbon.

In , M. In addition to compounds where xenon forms a chemical bond , xenon can form clathrates —substances where xenon atoms or pairs are trapped by the crystalline lattice of another compound.

Xenon can also form endohedral fullerene compounds, where a xenon atom is trapped inside a fullerene molecule. The xenon atom trapped in the fullerene can be observed by Xe nuclear magnetic resonance NMR spectroscopy.

Through the sensitive chemical shift of the xenon atom to its environment, chemical reactions on the fullerene molecule can be analyzed.

These observations are not without caveat, however, because the xenon atom has an electronic influence on the reactivity of the fullerene.

When xenon atoms are in the ground energy state , they repel each other and will not form a bond. When xenon atoms becomes energized, however, they can form an excimer excited dimer until the electrons return to the ground state.

This entity is formed because the xenon atom tends to complete the outermost electronic shell by adding an electron from a neighboring xenon atom.

Although xenon is rare and relatively expensive to extract from the Earth's atmosphere , it has a number of applications.

Xenon is used in light-emitting devices called xenon flash lamps, used in photographic flashes and stroboscopic lamps; [15] to excite the active medium in lasers which then generate coherent light ; [] and, occasionally, in bactericidal lamps.

Continuous, short-arc, high pressure xenon arc lamps have a color temperature closely approximating noon sunlight and are used in solar simulators.

That is, the chromaticity of these lamps closely approximates a heated black body radiator at the temperature of the Sun.

First introduced in the s, these lamps replaced the shorter-lived carbon arc lamps in movie projectors.

They are an excellent source of short wavelength ultraviolet radiation and have intense emissions in the near infrared used in some night vision systems.

Xenon is used as a starter gas in HID automotive headlights, and high-end "tactical" flashlights. The individual cells in a plasma display contain a mixture of xenon and neon ionized with electrodes.

The interaction of this plasma with the electrodes generates ultraviolet photons , which then excite the phosphor coating on the front of the display.

Xenon is used as a "starter gas" in high pressure sodium lamps. It has the lowest thermal conductivity and lowest ionization potential of all the non-radioactive noble gases.

As a noble gas, it does not interfere with the chemical reactions occurring in the operating lamp.

The low thermal conductivity minimizes thermal losses in the lamp while in the operating state, and the low ionization potential causes the breakdown voltage of the gas to be relatively low in the cold state, which allows the lamp to be more easily started.

In , a group of researchers at Bell Laboratories discovered laser action in xenon, [] and later found that the laser gain was improved by adding helium to the lasing medium.

Xenon has been used as a general anesthetic , but it is more expensive than conventional anesthetics. Xenon interacts with many different receptors and ion channels, and like many theoretically multi-modal inhalation anesthetics, these interactions are likely complementary.

Xenon is a high-affinity glycine-site NMDA receptor antagonist. Like nitrous oxide and cyclopropane , xenon activates the two-pore domain potassium channel TREK A related channel TASK-3 also implicated in the actions of inhalation anesthetics is insensitive to xenon.

Xenon is a competitive inhibitor of the serotonin 5-HT 3 receptor. While neither anesthetic nor antinociceptive, this reduces anesthesia-emergent nausea and vomiting.

Unlike nitrous oxide N 2 O , xenon is not a greenhouse gas and is viewed as environmentally friendly. Xenon induces robust cardioprotection and neuroprotection through a variety of mechanisms.

The latter hormone is known to increase red blood cell production and athletic performance.

Reportedly, doping with xenon inhalation has been used in Russia since and perhaps earlier. Gamma emission from the radioisotope Xe of xenon can be used to image the heart, lungs, and brain, for example, by means of single photon emission computed tomography.

Xenon, particularly hyperpolarized Xe, is a useful contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging MRI. In the gas phase, it can image cavities in a porous sample, alveoli in lungs, or the flow of gases within the lungs.

The xenon chloride excimer laser has certain dermatological uses. Because of the xenon atom's large, flexible outer electron shell, the NMR spectrum changes in response to surrounding conditions and can be used to monitor the surrounding chemical circumstances.

For instance, xenon dissolved in water, xenon dissolved in hydrophobic solvent, and xenon associated with certain proteins can be distinguished by NMR.

Hyperpolarized xenon can be used by surface chemists. Normally, it is difficult to characterize surfaces with NMR because signals from a surface are overwhelmed by signals from the atomic nuclei in the bulk of the sample, which are much more numerous than surface nuclei.

However, nuclear spins on solid surfaces can be selectively polarized by transferring spin polarization to them from hyperpolarized xenon gas.

This makes the surface signals strong enough to measure and distinguish from bulk signals. In nuclear energy studies, xenon is used in bubble chambers , [] probes, and in other areas where a high molecular weight and inert chemistry is desirable.

A by-product of nuclear weapon testing is the release of radioactive xenon and xenon These isotopes are monitored to ensure compliance with nuclear test ban treaties , [] and to confirm nuclear tests by states such as North Korea.

Liquid xenon is used in calorimeters [] to measure gamma rays , and as a detector of hypothetical weakly interacting massive particles , or WIMPs.

When a WIMP collides with a xenon nucleus, theory predicts it will impart enough energy to cause ionization and scintillation.

Liquid xenon is useful for these experiments because its density makes dark matter interaction more likely and it permits a quiet detector through self-shielding.

Xenon is the preferred propellant for ion propulsion of spacecraft because it has low ionization potential per atomic weight and can be stored as a liquid at near room temperature under high pressure , yet easily evaporated to feed the engine.

Xenon is inert, environmentally friendly, and less corrosive to an ion engine than other fuels such as mercury or caesium. Xenon was first used for satellite ion engines during the s.

Chemically, the perxenate compounds are used as oxidizing agents in analytical chemistry. Xenon difluoride is used as an etchant for silicon , particularly in the production of microelectromechanical systems MEMS.

Applied at pressures from 0. Because they are strongly oxidative , many oxygen— xenon compounds are toxic; they are also explosive highly exothermic , breaking down to elemental xenon and diatomic oxygen O 2 with much stronger chemical bonds than the xenon compounds.

Xenon gas can be safely kept in normal sealed glass or metal containers at standard temperature and pressure.

However, it readily dissolves in most plastics and rubber, and will gradually escape from a container sealed with such materials.

Hence, xenon vibrates more slowly in the vocal cords when exhaled and produces lowered voice tones, an effect opposite to the high-toned voice produced in helium.

Like helium, xenon does not satisfy the body's need for oxygen, and it is both a simple asphyxiant and an anesthetic more powerful than nitrous oxide; consequently, and because xenon is expensive, many universities have prohibited the voice stunt as a general chemistry demonstration.

The gas sulfur hexafluoride is similar to xenon in molecular weight versus , less expensive, and though an asphyxiant, not toxic or anesthetic; it is often substituted in these demonstrations.

Breathing mixes gases of different densities very effectively and rapidly so that heavier gases are purged along with the oxygen, and do not accumulate at the bottom of the lungs.

Xenon is rarely used in large enough quantities for this to be a concern, though the potential for danger exists any time a tank or container of xenon is kept in an unventilated space.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the chemical element. For other uses, see Xenon disambiguation. Chemical element with atomic number A xenon-filled discharge tube glowing light blue.

Xenon flash animated version. Main article: Isotopes of xenon. See also: Category:Xenon compounds. Chemistry portal. Oxford English Dictionary.

Clarendon Press. Retrieved Pure and Applied Chemistry. Gas Encyclopedia. Air Liquide. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology.

Physical Review C. Bibcode : PhRvC.. Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia 6th ed. Columbia University Press. Thermophysical properties of neon, argon, krypton, and xenon.

Bibcode : wdch Volume Oxford University Press. Sound Person's Guide to Video. Focal Press. British Medical Bulletin.

Soviet Journal of Quantum Electronics. Bibcode : QuEle Laser Cladding. CRC Press. August 31, Nuclear Reactor Physics. Nobel Media AB.

Retrieved 15 November Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. Dodd, Mead and Company. Merriam-Webster, Inc.

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Xenon selbst ist nicht giftig. Zur Funktionsweise im Autoscheinwerfer siehe Xenonlicht. Lichtfarbe einstellbar. Louis Poulsen. Entdecken Go here jetzt alle Amazon Prime-Vorteile. Neuere Varianten kommen ohne Quecksilberanteil in der Füllung https://getnoki.co/supernatural-serien-stream/liebeskomgdie-filme-von-2014.php. Xenon compounds. This was discovered in the earliest nuclear reactors built by the American Manhattan Project for plutonium production. The Encyclopaedia of Medical Imaging. Serotonin https://getnoki.co/home-serien-stream/die-schgne-und-das-biest-2.php modulators. Views Read Edit View history.

Xenon Video

XENON - EN PAZ CONMIGO (CON SHÉ)

1 Comments

  1. Arashishicage Julabar

    Mir ist diese Situation bekannt. Man kann besprechen.

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